Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure 2023-10-11T16:17:49+00:00 Engr. Dr. Kaisan M. Usman Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure (NJSEI)</strong></p> <p><strong>A Publication of the National Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure (NASENI)</strong></p> <p>This Journal seeks to provide a common medium for the distribution of accurate results about Manufacturing and Production, Materials Science and Engineering, Conventional and Renewable Energy, Engineering Design and Fabrication, Natural and Physical Sciences, Power and Electronics, ICT (Computer, Cyber Security, Computer Vision, Speech Recognition, Pattern Recognition, Data Mining, Big Data, Data Analytics, Machine Intelligence and Deep Learning), Solid Minerals, Medical and Life Sciences, Agriculture and Ecology. Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure is published twice every year by National Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure (NASENI).</p> <p>Interested in submitting to this journal? We recommend that you review the About the Journal page for the journal's section policies, as well as the Author Guidelines. Authors need to register with the journal prior to submitting or, if already registered, can simply log in and begin the five-step process.</p> <p><strong>AIM</strong><br />This Journal seeks to provide a common medium for the distribution of accurate results and information.</p> <p><strong>SCOPE</strong><br />i. Manufacturing and Production,<br />ii. Materials Science and Engineering,<br />iii. Conventional and Renewable Energy,<br />iv. Engineering Design and Fabrication,<br />v. Natural and Physical Sciences,<br />vi. Power and Electronics,<br />vii. ICT (Computer, Cyber Security, Computer Vision, Speech Recognition, Pattern Recognition, Data Mining, Big Data, Data Analytics, Machine Intelligence and Deep Learning),<br />viii. Solid Minerals,<br />ix. Medical and Life Sciences,<br />x. Agriculture and Ecology.</p> <p>The Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure is published twice every year by National Agency for Science and Engineering Infrastructure (NASENI).</p> <p><strong>ARTICLE PROCESSING CHARGE</strong><br />All articles in the Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure are published in full open access, and no article processing charge (APC) is applied.<br />Authors are requested to submit their original and novel papers using the submission website.</p> Risk Management Practices in Rice Production: A Case of Smallholder Farmers of Soba Community in Northern Nigeria 2023-04-08T13:56:31+00:00 Umar Ali Umar Yunusa Onivehu Obadoba Ayodeji Nathaniel Oyedeji <p>Rice production in Nigeria has frequently proven difficult to sustain, despite the significant focus of the Nigerian government on discouraging its importation and encouraging its farming. However, rice production has its own risk, just like any production process. Therefore, the researchers of this study aimed to assess the risk management strategy employed by the farmers in Soba, Kaduna State and stipulate the most appropriate risk management strategy in rice production. The research data for the study were gathered using structured questionnaires that were pre-tested and validated before being administered to a sample of 354 rice production personnel (342 paddy farmers and 12 rice producers). Results of the study showed that rice producers are focused more on cause-oriented risk management practice than effect-oriented risk management practice, with ‘information exchange among rice producers’ as the most favoured risk management practice with a mean value of 4.13, followed by ‘selling/distribution of products to market they understand very well’, and ‘diversification of enterprise’ with mean values of 4.11, and 3.81 respectively under cause-oriented risk management practice. Results of the study suggest that rice producers in Soba, Kaduna State, tend to rely more on cause-oriented risk management practices, such as information exchange and market familiarisation, than on effect-oriented practices. These findings have important implications for policymakers and rice producers alike. They highlight the need for targeted support and training programs to help farmers manage risk and improve their productivity and profitability.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Physiochemical Quality Assessment of Surface and Groundwater Sources A Case Study of Southwest, Nigeria 2023-04-08T13:57:43+00:00 Francis Olawale Abulude Ebenezer Alaba Adeoya Kikelomo Mabinuola Arifalo Olumide Oluwole Adeyemi Bidemi Sikirat Jiddah-Kazeem <p>Surface and ground waters can originate from rain, the ocean, glaciers, lakes, ponds, wells, rivers, springs, and boreholes, among other places. These waters must be pollution-free for them to be useful. For this reason, the study evaluated the quality of water samples from three states and identified pollution based on physicochemical characteristics. In all, thirty-four water samples (dug well, rivers, borehole, and rain) were obtained from Osun, Ondo, and Ekiti State, and on-the-spot determinations of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), and temp (temperature) using a portable multi-parameter meter (the Temp/pH/TDS/EC meter), was made to measure the pH, temperature, TDS, and electrical conductivity in situ. The mean results were as follows: pH (6.87), temperature (28.17 <sup>o</sup>C), TDS (126.71 mg/L), and electrical conductivity (253.06 µs/cm). There were correlations (EC has a high positive association with TDS (r = 0.999, Cl = (0.998, 1.000) and a modest link with Temp (r = 0.233, Cl = (-0.106, 0.528). It should be noted that there were weak relationships between pH and temperature (r=0.139), TDS (r=0.027), and EC (r=0.022)) and the cluster analysis showed only a cluster of the water sample locations. The investigation revealed that the physicochemical were within the acceptable ranges of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Nigeria Standard for Water Quality (NSDWQ).</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Engine Performance Test Evaluation of Biodiesel Blends from Castor Seed Oil at Varying Mixture Ratios and Engine Speed 2023-05-11T15:34:58+00:00 Ibrahim Dominic Manu C. O. Folayan J. Micheal Muhammad Usman Kaisan <p><em>The growing global demand for energy with expected fossil fuel shortages stresses the search for alternative energy sources. Moreover, the high fossil energy consumption with its adverse impact on environment and climate changes calls for cleaner fuels. One of the most alternative fuel sources is the extraction of biofuels from Castor oil by acid-based catalysed trans- esterification process. In this study, experimental analysis was carried out to produce biodiesel from castor oil using trans- esterification process. The trans- esterification process occurs between castor oil and methanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst. The biodiesel fuel produced was varied at different mixture ratios with diesel. The high viscosity and acid value of the castor oil was further reduced by two-three stage trans-esterification process to within the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D6751 – 0.2 limits for biodiesel. The biodiesel was tested in a single cylinder diesel engine and results of gas emission, load analysis, fuel consumption rate and engine efficiency were all obtained which are close to those of diesel fuel thus confirming that it can be used as alternative fuel for diesel engines. The Brake thermal efficiency was 96% at B-20 biodiesel blend which is close to the conventional diesel engine efficiency of 95.5%. </em></p> 2023-10-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure FTIR characterization, phytochemical, antibacterial, and antioxidant properties of Pterocarpus Osun stembark and leaf extracts 2023-04-08T14:07:21+00:00 Adewale Fadeyi Oluremi Isola Adeniran Abayomi Orishadipe <p>Antimicrobial resistance threatens the prevention and treatment of an ever-increasing range of infections caused by microorganisms. It becomes necessary therefore, to determine compounds from natural sources that can be used to develop novel medicines with potent antimicrobial properties. Although, the stem bark of <em>Pterocarpus osun</em> has long been used to treat diarrhea, dysentery, and other gastrointestinal problems, there are no published pharmacological reports to authenticate these uses. The leaf and stem bark of <em>Pterocarpus osun</em> were extracted exhaustively and successively with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The antioxidant capacities of the extracts were measured using the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-PicrylHydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging technique and IC50 calculated. The extracts were screened for secondary metabolites and antibacterial activities. The result of the DPPH scavenging activities of the crude fractions compared favorably with that of the ascorbic acid used as standard control. 85.0% activity was recorded at concentration of 62.5µg/mL for the methanol stem bark fraction and, the least activity of 62.7% for ethyl acetate leaf extract at a concentration of 1000µg/mL. Terpenes, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, tannins, and flavonoids were detected in the extracts. Four of the eleven human pathogens used for antimicrobial screening were sensitive, four others were resistant. Zones of inhibition measured ranged between 18 and 29mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bacteria/fungicidal concentrations were measured between 1.25 to 5.00mg/mL. The FTIR spectra of the powdered samples and extracts’ fractions reported.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Day Ahead Forecasting of Photovoltaic Power Output in Maiduguri Using Feedforward Neural Network 2023-03-14T19:37:09+00:00 Abdullahi Bukar Abdulkadir Musa Modu Abbagana Bakura Mala Umar Mustapha <p>With the increasing use of large scale grid-connected PV system, accurate forecasting approach for the power output PV system has become an important issue. Power planning is necessary for cost efficiency of power generation in which power forecasting is an essential part. For the Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN) models, pre-processing techniques was used on the relevant variables. In this research work, FFNN based model was designed to forecast the next day PV power output of Maiduguri depending on available variables (Time of the day, day of the week, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover and PV power output) for the model. The FFNN based models were designed in the MATLAB® (R2015a) environment. Hence based on the results obtained from this research, it can be concluded that the FFNN based model performance is satisfactory for predicting next day PV power output. From the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) value of 8.9093 on the test data set, it can be concluded that the Model had a better MAPE value which is an indication that the system performance is better than ANFIS which had 15.0048 as MAPE.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Bacteria Associated with Kitchen Surface in Some Selected Areas in Sokoto State, Nigeria 2023-03-11T21:21:21+00:00 Zainab Sanusi Muhammad Shaaibu Bala Manga Aminu Yusuf Fardami Aminu Aliyu <p>Contamination of kitchen utensils and their role as a source or microbial reservoir is now becoming a major concern in addressing food hygiene and safety. This study was carried out to isolate and identify bacteria associated with kitchen surfaces in some selected areas in Sokoto State, Nigeria. The swab sticks were collected from the Kitchen surface in Arkilla, Lowcoast, Mabera, Minnanata and Runjin Sambo. Samples collected were isolated and characterized using microscopy and biochemical tests. The most frequently isolated bacteria were <em>Citrobacter freundi </em>with (16%), followed by <em>Staphylococcus cohnii</em> with (12%).<em>Clostridium fallax</em>, <em>Bacillus cereus, Salmonella</em>sp<em>., Staphylococcus saccharolyticus, Clostridium botulinum and vibrio cholera, </em>had (8%) each. <em>Clostridium septicum, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Salmonella para typhi A, Shigella specie, Staphylococcus xerosis, Clostridium butyricum</em> had (4%) each. Also, the highest mean count of 1.18x10<sup>5</sup>cfu/ml/50cm<sup>2</sup> was observed from bacteria isolated from the Arkilla area. The implication of this finding is that potentially pathogenic bacteria like <em>Staphylococcus, Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio species</em> may be of public health concern. The need for of disinfection of kitchen and covering the utensils use in kitchen is now a very important need that developing countries need in their policy making.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Utilisation of Maggots and Earthworms as Protein Supplement in The Feed of Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) 2023-03-11T21:15:12+00:00 Habibatu Abdulrahman R. T Idowu G. O. Ogunlade-Anibasa <p>Six months feeding trial was conducted to determine the growth performances of juvenile of <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> fed with varying replacement levels of Earthworm and Maggot meals. Proximate analysis was conducted using the procedure of Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) to ascertain the proximate compositions of Earthworm and Maggot. It was found that both Earthworm and Maggots have high protein content (42.95% and 40.33% respectively). Twenty-five (25) fingerlings of <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> were subjected to five different dietary treatments in replicate of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. Feedings were done twice a day (8am in the morning and 5pm in the evening) at 3% of their body weight, and the quantity of feeds was adjusted based on new weight gain. The morphometric measurements were carried out biweekly. At six months, the highest standard length (40.40 ± 0.50cm), total length (43.30 ± 1.00cm), and weight gain (485.10 ± 13.00g) was observed in 100% Earthworm and maggot meal, while the least standard length (32.60 ± 0.80cm), total length (35.90 ± 1.60cm) and weight gain (428.60 ± 4.50g) was observed in 0% Earthworm and Maggot meal. However, in all other growth performances and nutrient utilization parameters measured such as Relative growth rate, Specific growth rate, Feed intake, Protein efficiency ratio and Feed conversion ratio, 100% Earthworm and maggot had the best performance more than other treatments. There are no significant differences (P&lt;0.05) in survival rates in all the five different treatments. The results gotten from the water quality parameters showed no significant difference among all the treatment. Therefore, it can be concluded that combination of Earthworm and Maggot meal as a substitute to fish meal at 100% replacement level, in the diet of <em> </em> <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> could enhance growth without any adverse negative effect on the health, growth and development of juvenile of African catfish (<em>Clarias gariepinus</em>).</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Design and Implementation of a Non-Contact Temperature Based Attendance System 2023-03-11T21:40:49+00:00 Ademoh Agbogunde Isah Bassey Glory Emah <p>During the COVID-19 pandemic, the necessity to monitor body temperature without touching it and swiftly led to the adoption of infrared thermometers, thermal imaging cameras, and thermal scanners as an alternative to the existing contact clinical thermometers. However, non-contact temperature monitoring equipment are not widely used, and technical–scientific literature sometimes offers contradictory reference values for healthy people' body and skin temperatures. To reduce the possibility of the virus spreading, national authorities have mandated that workers' body temperatures be taken at the entry to the workplace. In this project, we'll look at non-contact body temperature measuring difficulties from a clinical and meteorological standpoint, as well as a security-based attendance system, with the goal of (i) increasing body temperature measurement accuracy and (ii) collecting staff attendance as they arrive at work. This project's methodology takes into account both the manual technique of temperature measuring and the manual way of recording attendance. In order to appropriately pick the threshold temperature value and measurement technique to access important areas during the COVID-19 pandemic emergency, a thorough screening process for attendance taking and body temperature measurement that considers the role of uncertainty is required.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Characterization of Bambu Clay as A Precursor for The Synthesis of Zeolite for Catalytic Application 2023-03-11T21:27:06+00:00 Abdullahi Musa Alhaji Mohammed U. Garba Elizabeth J. Eterigho Mohammed Alhassan Usman Taura <p>The clay in Bambu town, north-central Nigeria, has been used as a ceramic formulation for several generations without understanding its properties. In this paper, the mineralogical study of the Bambu clay sample was investigated in order to deduce its properties and its potential for technological applications. Samples of the clay were first pre-treated and subjected to elemental composition using powder diffraction, morphology, Fourier transform infrared, and area-volume-pore size analyses. The results indicated that Bambu clay can be classified as kaolinite with a Si/Al ratio of approximately 1:85. From the SEM, the particles show the presence of pseudo-hexagonal structures within the clay structure. The average crystallite size was deduced from the XRD analysis to be 43.5nm. The BET analysis reveals that the surface area of the clay was 429.70 m<sup>2</sup>g-1, pore volume was 0.042 cm<sup>3</sup>g-1 and the pore radius was 2.14 nm. The clay showed that the sample possessed a concentration of Bronsted acidic sites of 31.57 µmol/g and Lewis acidic sites of 34.40 µmol/g. To ascertain the clay’s viability for industrial application, the results of the analyses were compared with other clays from the literature. It can be deduced from the analyses that the Bambu clay is kaolinite, mesoporous, has a crystalline structure, a low Si/Al ratio, a higher surface area than zeolite Y, and a high concentration of Lewis acidic sites and a low concentration of Bronsted acidic sites. The clay could be a good precursor material for the synthesis of zeolite Y for catalytic applications.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Preparation and Characterization of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Waste filled with Rice husk Silica (RHS) Composites in Gwagwalada metropolis, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. 2023-03-11T21:33:35+00:00 Sani Okoye Ibrahim Funke W. Abdulrahman Sunday A. Kolawole Benjamin I. Ugheoke <p>The adverse effects of use of plastics by human beings are on the increase and become challenging with the growing population. The non-degradability of plastics products such as bottles, cans, cups, bags which resulted into blockage of culverts, drains, suffocating animal’s life. This research focused on recycling of high density polyethylene (HDPE) plastic waste with rice husk silica (RHS) from agricultural waste of rice husks to form polymer composites. Different proportions of 0.5 to 3.0 % rice husk silica (RHS) as filler were melt mixed with maleic anhydride grafted high density polyethylene (HDPE) material and the composite analyzed for tensile and flexural strengths. The tensile strengths ranged values from 10.49 to 13.02 MPa for the resin (vHDPE) and the recycled (rHDPE) composites presented values from 8.30 and 12.41 MPa for 0.5 and 3.0% filler loading, respectively. The peak flexural strengths recorded for recycled (rHDPE) and resins (vHDPE) composites are 12.19 MPa and 12.05 MPa for 0.5 and 3.0% filler loading, respectively. The tensile strength of rice husk silica (RHS) filled HDPE waste composites are higher than that of the waste HDPE (control) and thus, the filler reinforced the HDPE. The composite prepared is suitable for use as tiles in building applications.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Application Of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) In Predicting Thermal and Electrical Efficiency of a Photovoltaic Thermal (PvT) System 2023-03-15T13:18:41+00:00 Muhammad Ibrahim D.M Kulla S Umaru D. Abdul Salam M.Z Abdullah I.I Enagi <p>The use of photovoltaic (PV/T) system that converts solar radiation to electricity and provide thermal needs concurrently stands as one of the most effective means of utilizing renewable energy. In recent times, machine-learning techniques have been extensively used in solar system applications due to their high accuracy in predicting the performances without necessarily going through physical modelling. The main objective of this study is to implement an intelligent algorithm adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model to simulate and predict the thermal and electrical efficiencies of a water-based photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) system. Thorough experimentation for the fabricated set-ups (conventional PV and a water-based PV/T system) was carried out. The real experimental results was validated using ANFIS model. Base on the results obtained it was confirmed that there was an excellent agreement between the predicted model outputs and the actual experimental data. However, the ANFIS model gave the highest prediction accuracy with the lowest error margin of 0.00021, 0.0089 and 0.0459 for MSE, RMSE and MAE with strong correlation (R<sup>2</sup>) of 0.9998. Base on the results obtained it was concluded that this intelligent algorithm is a reliable tool in predicting the PV/T system performances.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Isolation and Characterization of Cellulose Nano crystals from Baobab Pod Fibres using Acid Hydrolysis 2023-03-11T21:46:41+00:00 Aliyu Ibrahim Isah Muhammad Sani Abdulkadir Abdullahi Kusfa Abubakar <p>In this research, cellulose nanocrystals were isolated from locally grown baobab pod fibres. Fibres were treated chemically using NaOH and then hydrolysed using Nitric acid. The effect of NaOH treatment and acid hydrolysis on surface morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of fibres were investigated using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy/Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA). From the results evaluated, cellulose content of 17.9 % was recorded after NaOH treatment and 25.3 % was recorded after acid hydrolysis, the crystallite size was found to be 3.003 nm and thermal stability of the fibre was enhanced after chemical treatment and acid hydrolysis. Based on the results obtained, it shows that nanocellulose hydrolyzed from baobab pod fibres has excellent properties for use as polymer reinforcement and for other engineering applications.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Influence of Particle Loading on The Microstructure of Aluminum-Fe3O4.AgTe2 Composite 2023-03-11T22:01:33+00:00 Murtala Dankulu Hassan M.T Ibrahim A.D Abdulwaris Y.A Yerima <p>Aluminum metal matrix composites (AMMC) are becoming viable materials for many applications in renewable energy and fuel security, entertainment, communications, machine tools, transportation, medical and pharmaceutical industries, and household appliances. In this study, Aluminum was reinforced with the Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>.AgTe<sub>2 </sub>through the recrystallization process, hence, AMMC was successfully developed. The aim was to locally develop new material with improved mechanical, and chemical properties that could be used as an absorber for solar thermal applications. The conventional Aluminum and composite were analyzed for morphological and chemical properties. Based on the obtained results, the microstructural analysis of the composite demonstrated an appreciable distribution of the reinforcement materials within the Aluminum matrix. The development of new phases was also revealed which is belief to have contributed immensely toward enhancing the strength and corrosion resistance of the composite. The conventional Aluminum sample are more corrosive in acidic solution than AMMC because the grain size of the AMMC materials being homogeneous; nevertheless, the grain size varied throughout the heating process, resulting in dislocation defects. Recrystallization creates homogenous grains when base materials are regularly intermixed during heating. It was observed that after the corrosion test in an acidic solution AMMC shows a positive outcome toward corrosion resistance (lower corrosion rate) which could enhance the thermal conductivity of the AMMC. It is therefore recommended that the composite can be used as solar thermal absorbers.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Assessment of Elemental Composition of Kaolin from Kankara And Dutsinma Mine Sites, Katsina State, Nigeria 2023-03-11T20:03:29+00:00 Aliyu Sani G. J. Ibeh O.O Ige <p>This research aimed to assess the health hazards associated with heavy metals contamination around Kankara and Dutsinma Kaolin mining sites. The analysis was done by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) at the Central Laboratory, Umaru Musa Yar-adua University, Katsina. In which health hazards were evaluated. using numerous Statistical and United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) models. Thirty nine (39) different elements were analyzed using the most associated environmental and health risk of priority in which seven (07) of them are heavy metals of interest; Among them are: Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zink (Zn), Thallium (Ti), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As), with an average concentrations of 20.02, 12.59, 54.03, 1344.4, 21.94, 140.00, and Not Available Value (NA) in the studied area. The Values obtained for overall hazard index (HI) are within the accepted values by (USEPA) which indicates no cancer risk for both adults and Children. While the overall excess lifetime cancer risk for a heavy metal was 8.5555E-06 (a maximum of 9 people per 1 million may be affected) for children and 7.5773E-05 (a maximum of 8 people per 1 million may be affected) for adults.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Performance Evaluation of Box-Type Solar Cookers Using Different Insulation Materials 2023-03-14T19:35:08+00:00 Muhammad Ishaq Fasiu Ajani Oluwole Nuhu Caleb Amulah Abdulsalam Bello <p>This study investigates the thermal performance of solar box cookers developed using sawdust, chicken feather, and groundnut shell, respectively as insulation materials. Stagnation tests and load tests were carried out to evaluate the cooker performance by determining first figure of merit (F<sub>1</sub>), cooking power, standardized cooking power and the thermal efficiency of the developed cookers. The F<sub>1</sub> values for cookers A (which served as the control), B (sawdust), C (chicken feather) and D (groundnut shell) were found to be 0.099 °C m<sup>2</sup>/W, 0.129 °C m<sup>2</sup>/W, 0.114°C m<sup>2</sup>/W and 0.111°C m<sup>2</sup>/W, respectively. The standardized cooking power at 50<sup>0</sup>C temperature difference for cookers B, C, and D were 42. 25W, 37.26W and 35. 25 W, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the regression for cookers B and D have a good fit. Cooker C, however, has an R<sup>2</sup> value of less than 75%; the variation in the cooking power, therefore, cannot be explained by temperature difference. The overall thermal performance of the cookers B, C, D were reported as 25. 46%, 23.51% and 24.0%, respectively. The study concludes that effective utilization of a material with good thermal insulation property contributes significant roles in improving the cooking performance of the cooker.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure Effect of pH, Temperature, Nutrients and incubation time on production of xanthan gum by Xanthomonas campetris and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 2023-04-08T14:01:05+00:00 Jireh Kure S.B. Salubuyi U. Ahmadu B.T. Kure A. Mohammed U.J.J. Ijah <p>This study screened <em>Xanthomonas </em>species isolated from tomato, pepper, mango and banana with black rot spots for potential to produce xanthan gum. The leaves were washed in normal saline and tenfold dilution was prepared. Aliquots (1ml) were plated on Nutrient agar and incubated at 25 ˚C for 48h. Colonies with yellow pigmentation were gram stained. Gram negative rod bacteria were subjected to emulsification test. Isolates with yellow colonies, gram negative rods and which exhibited stable emulsion in carbon enriched medium were regarded as potential xanthan gum producers. Eight (61.5%) of the isolates screened fulfilled these conditions. Biochemical tests on the isolates revealed that the organisms were <em>Xanthomonas </em>species and were coded accordingly (BX<sub>2, </sub>BX<sub>3</sub>, PX<sub>4,</sub> MX<sub>6,</sub> PX<sub>7,</sub> MX<sub>8</sub>, TM<sub>9</sub>, TX<sub>11</sub>). The best two isolates (TM<sub>9</sub> and BX<sub>3</sub>) were subjected to molecular analysis and were found to be <em>Xanthomonas campestris</em> and <em>Stenotrophomonas maltophilia</em>. <em>Xanthomonas campestris</em> and <em>Stenotrophomonas maltophilia</em> were more efficient xanthan gum producers, yielding 2.10 g/l and 1.63 g/l respectively of xanthan gum after 96 h. The results revealed that as the fermentation time increased, the biomass also increased. The xanthan gum yield by the two organisms was found to increase from 0.92 to 7.6 g/l and 0.99 to 4.55 g/l under optimized conditions of pH: (9.0, 7.0), temperature (25°C) carbon source (02% pineapple peels 0.2% sugarcane bagasse) and nitrogen source (Yeast extract) respectively. The result suggest that <em>Xanthomonas </em>species are good candidates for xanthan gum production.</p> 2023-10-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nigerian Journal of Science and Engineering Infrastructure